Thursday, May 21, 2015



An article from the Utne Reader of May 29, 2014 was recently brought to my attention.  It was written by Michael T. Klare and was titled, Big Energy Sinks Its Teeth Into the Developing WorldHe pointed out that in the 1980’s, when people in the U.S. became aware of the health risks of smoking and demand for cigarettes fell, the big tobacco companies maintained their growing profits by increasing sales in developing countries, where the demand was strong and tobacco regulation was week or nonexistent.  Now big energy companies like Exxon Mobil are taking a page from Big Tobacco’s playbook and are targeting their sales to developing countries.  Klare wrote, “As in the case of cigarette sales, the stepped-up delivery of fossil fuels to developing countries is doubly harmful. Their targeting by Big Tobacco has produced a sharp rise in smoking-related illnesses among the poor in places where health systems are particularly ill equipped for those in need. “If current trends continue,” the WHO reported in 2011, “by 2030 tobacco will kill more than 8 million people worldwide each year, with 80% of these premature deaths among people living in low- and middle-income countries.” In a similar fashion, an increase in carbon sales to such nations will help produce more intense storms and longer, more devastating droughts in places that are least prepared to withstand or cope with climate change’s perils.” 
NOTE: Someone defined ‘evil’ as benefiting yourself by harming others.

The April 9 issue of the Washington Post had an article by Chris Mooney titled, Why 2015 could be a record year for the greening of U.S. energyThe reason is a combination of record high installations of renewable energy - especially solar PV an wind - and replacement of coal plants by natural gas for electricity generation.  He has a nice figure showing the amounts of coal and gas burned from 2005 to 2015 and the projections to 2020,  from 2015 power market outlook  by Bloomberg New Energy Finance.  It appears that U.S. carbon emissions are growing much less rapidly than the overall economy - a very encouraging decoupling in the U.S.

On April 19 Tim Radford posted an article in RTCC News titled, Ocean acidification triggered mass extinctions 252 million years agoThe mass extinction he was referring to is called the Permian Extinction, and was the worst extinction event in Earth’s long geologic history, when over 90% of all species disappeared.  Scientists believe that the extinction was triggered by the release of a very large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere - probably from a series of volcanic eruptions over a period of 60,000 years.  Enough of the CO2 dissolved in the oceans to make them very acidic.  Although humans have been adding CO2 by burning fossil fuels for only a few hundred years, our rate of addition is now perhaps four times what it was during the Permian Extinction, and is increasing as more sources of carbon are found and burned.  

On April 29 The Guardian posted an article titled, California governor calls for drastic reduction in gas emissions by 2030.  Governor Terry Brown has issued an executive order setting a greenhouse gas emissions reduction goal 40% below the 1990 level by 2030.  The state has a cap-and-trade system that puts a price on emissions of carbon from all fossil fuels used in California - including those used for transportation.  Former New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg praised Brown’s action, saying, California’s 2030 goal to reduce carbon emissions is not only bold, it’s necessary – for the economy and our future.” The target is more bold that the one President Obama suggested for the U.S., although it has already been accepted by the European Union.

Craig Welsh published an article in the April 30 National Geographic titled, What Animals Are Likely to Go Extinct First Due to Climate Change?  His article was based on an article in Science that reviewed 131 articles on extinction trying to get the best current estimates.  It found that rates of extinction in Australia and New Zealand are likely to be twice those in North America, while in South America they may be four times as high.  The risks increase with global average temperature, with 2.8% of global species now at risk of extinction, rising to 5.2% with a 2 dregees C rise in temperature and  16% - 1/6 of all species - with a 4.3 degree rise - a change quite possible during this century without dramatic reductions in carbon emissions from fossil fuels.  Janneke Hille Ris Lambers of the University of Washington said, “This is evidence that we’re pushing the earth to a place where it has either never been or hasn’t been for a very, very long time.”

On May 5 Climate Denial Crock of the Week by Peter Sinclair posted a 13-minute audio recording of an interview with Prof. James Hansen of Columbia University titled, James Hansen: Two Degrees is a Recipe for Disaster.  In it he said that an increase of 2 degrees C, though often seen as a safe level of global warming, is no such thing.  Paleoclimate studies (not climate models) show that sea levels were 8-9 meters higher than now during the last interglacial period about 120,000 years ago, when the global temperature was warmer than now by less than 2 degrees C.  Accelerating rates of loss of polar ice sheets is shown by satellite measurements during the past 12 years, with the rate of loss doubling in 10.  If this continues, sea levels could be several meters higher in 40-50 years.
Mr. Sinclair has a series of short videos on Climate Denial Crock of the Week.
NOTE:  University of Chicago geologist David Archer has written a book titled, The Long Thaw - How Humans are Changing the Next 100,000 Years of Earth’s Climate, Princeton University Press, 2009.  He has a figure (Figure 17 on Page 138) showing the relationship between sea level and global average temperature in the geologic past.  The sensitivity of sea level to temperature is about 20 meters change for each degree C change in temperature, or about 36 feet for each degree F.  Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, earth’s global average temperature has already increased by 0.8 degree C (1.4 degree F) - committing us to at least 50 feet of sea level rise.

The May 8 issue of Climate Central has an article by Bobby Magill titled, MIT: ‘Massive’ Solar Expansion Critical for Climate.  He cites a recent report from MIT saying that a massive expansion of solar power - enough to supply a third of the world’s electricity - may be needed by 2050 to avoid the worst impacts of climate change.  For the U.S. this would mean increasing the current 20 gigawatts of solar capacity to 400 gigawatts - enough to provide power to 80 million homes.

Climate Access describes itself as The network for those engaging the public in the transformation to low-carbon, resilient communities.”  It recently issued a new report, described as follows ”The Preparation Frame: A Guide to Building Understanding of Climate Impacts and Engagement in Solutions explores how to shift the climate conversation to a focus on preparing for and reducing the threat of climate disruption. The preparation frame is built around the fundamental challenges, choices, and opportunities we face in confronting climate disruption and puts people, prosperity, and security at the heart of the discussion.”  The report can be downloaded at the link above and has eight guiding principles:
1. Focus on local, observable impacts
2. Begin with what audiences care about
3. Build on non-partisan values
4. Tap uncertainty as a reason to prepare
5. Emphasize the cost of inaction
6. Promote practical solutions 
7. Articulate what will get better if action is taken
8. Promote mitigation as a preparation strategy 

The following items are from the Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI), Carol Werner, Executive Director. Past issues of its newsletter are posted on its website under "publications"
EESI’s newsletter is intended for all interested parties, particularly the policymaker community. 

White House Releases Executive Actions on Climate Change With QER
On April 21, President Obama unveiled two executive actions addressing climate change resilience in US electric infrastructure using findings from the first ever Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) produced by the Department of Energy (DOE). The first executive action is a U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announcement of $72 million in loans for six new rural electric infrastructure projects, which include investments in enhancing rural solar power, smart grid projects, and power lines. The second action creates a private-public partnership, the Partnership for Energy Sector Climate Resilience, to increase energy infrastructure resiliency against climate change. There are 17 companies taking part in the partnership, which will hold its first meeting April 30.  
For more information see:

Rep. Ted Lieu Introduces Climate Solutions Act
On April 22, Rep. Ted Lieu (D-CA) introduced new climate change legislation in the House of Representatives. The "Climate Solutions Act of 2015" builds upon California’s Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, which Ted Lieu co-wrote while a Senator in California’s state government. The Climate Solutions Act sets a goal of 40 percent cut in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2035 and an 80 percent cut by 2050. “The health of our families and the future of our economy depend upon our willing to forge bold 21st century solutions to . . . climate change,” wrote Lieu in an op-ed in The Hill. The Climate Solutions Act has measures to increase energy efficiency, reduce GHG emissions, and increase renewable energy production.
For more information see:

US Greenhouse Gas Emissions Rose in 2014
On April 20, the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported that US greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) increased during 2014 for the second year in a row, but not in tandem with the economy. Emissions in the United States increased by 0.7 percent, while the economy grew 2.4 percent. This decoupling of GHG emissions and the economy was seen on the global economy last year as well, as global emissions stalled while the global economy grew three percent, according to the International Energy Agency. Slight improvements in energy and carbon intensity helped diminish GHG emissions growth in the US this past year, said EIA. The decoupling is an indicator that reducing GHG emissions and combating global climate change is possible without adverse effects on the economy.
For more information see:

Apple Affirms Commitment to Fight Climate Change
On April 20, Apple released its 2015 Environmental Responsibility Report, in which the company states its continuing pledge to combat climate change. Apple’s carbon footprint increased from 2013 to 2014, in part due to an increase in sales. Although 100 percent of US-based Apple operations and 87 percent of international locations are powered by renewable energy, these facilities only represent one percent of total Apple greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Seventy-three percent of Apple’s emissions come from the manufacture of its products. Apple said it will design future products to be less carbon-intensive to manufacture and operate. The company stated in its report, “We don’t want to debate climate change. We want to stop it.”
For more information see:

Report Finds Methane Emissions Are Low-Cost Way to Fight Climate Change
A new study released April 21, “Untapped Potential: Reducing Global Methane Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Systems,” commissioned by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) and conducted by the Rhodium Group, found that reducing methane leaks from oil and gas operations could be a low-cost effort to mitigate climate change. The study found about 3.5 trillion cubic feet of methane escaped oil and gas operations in 2012, a lost value of $30 billion that has a 100-year global warming footprint equivalent to Russia’s total annual emissions. “Methane is both a serious climate challenge and also, in our view, a major untapped opportunity to start reversing the tide of global greenhouse gas emissions,” said Mark Brownstein at EDF.
For more information see:

Reports Show Clean Power Plan Will Lower Electricity Rates for Low-Income People
Two reports released the third week of April by the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and the Michigan League for Public Policy (MLPP) found that low-income residents will benefit the most as states comply with the Clean Power Plan’s (CPP) federal carbon regulations. The reports cited energy efficiency and the reliable costs of renewable energy as the most beneficial aspects of the CPP. “Low-income families and those of color are disproportionately affected by pollution costs and pollutants from coal-burning power plants. Energy efficiency and renewable energy bring lots of benefits to people -- pollution is reduced and bills are smaller and more predictable,” said Gilda Jacobs, president and CEO of MLPP.
For more information see:

State Department Calls Climate Change “Strategic Priority” In Quadrennial Review
On April 29, the State Department released its Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review (QDDR). The document outlined four foreign policy priorities through 2020, including climate change, terrorism, economic growth and promoting democracies. The QDDR says the US should target diplomacy at countries with a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and directly engage with business leaders, women’s groups, faith leaders, and local governments to further emissions reductions goals. Additionally, the QDDR called for climate change to become a “core competency” for all State and US Agency for International Development (USAID) officials, and said all embassies should appoint a point person for climate change.
For more information see:

California Governor Issues Executive Order on Greenhouse Gases
On April 29, California Governor Jerry Brown signed an executive order requiring the state to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 40 percent from 1990 levels by 2030. This new target is an interim goal on the way to an 80 percent reduction from 1990 levels by 2050, and an improvement on the previous goal to reach 1990 levels by 2020, both set in place during former Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger’s time in office. California is already well on its way to meet the 2020 goal, and this new interim target will increase its pace of renewable energy implementation. Gov. Brown’s goal puts the state in line with standards in the European Union. Brown said, “California is now setting the pace, and we’re very serious about it.”
For more information see:

Pope Francis Holds Summit on Climate Change
On April 28, Pope Francis Benedict XVI held a climate summit at the Vatican, keynoted by United Nations (UN) Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon. At the event, Cardinal Peter Turkson, who covers peace and justice issues for the Pope, said a “full conversion” of hearts and minds is necessary to conquer global warming. Turkson has been working to draft an encyclical, or papal statement, which will outline the Catholic Church’s position on climate change. The encyclical is due to be released in June. The Pope is scheduled to speak before the UN General Assembly and the US Congress, events Ban Ki-Moon says will have a profound impact on upcoming climate change negotiations in Paris this year. In related news, Heartland Institute, a American libertarian think tank, announced it is sending representatives to Rome to try to convince the Pope to reverse his position on climate change.  
For more information see:

Report Says 75 Percent of Heat Waves Caused By Climate Change
On April 27, the journal Nature Climate Change published an article, “Anthropogenic Contribution to Global Occurrence of Heavy-Precipitation and High-Temperature Extremes,” which found that 75 percent of very hot days and 18 percent of heavy rain or snow events are linked to anthropogenic climate change. The study posits that should average global temperatures rise by two degrees Celsius, extreme precipitation weather events which are attributable to anthropogenic climate change will increase 40 percent. The study analyzed weather data from 25 climate models spanning from 1901 through 2005, in addition to climate projections for 2006 to 2100.
For more information see:

Report Says Half of World’s Pension Funds Unprotected from Climate Change Implications
On April 27, the Asset Owners Disclosure Project (AODP) released their annual ranking of how 500 of the largest global asset owners, whose cumulative assets amount to nearly $40 trillion, are doing on climate performance. AODP found that only a small number are making alterations in investments to reflect risks caused by climate change, although 50 percent of the assets surveyed are at risk from climate change. Only nine asset owners received an AAA rating, meaning that the owner had a strategy to protect themselves from long-term risks associated with climate change. Julian Poulter, AODP’s CEO, said, “They’re betting around 20-1 that either the fossil fuel company influence will last forever or that their fund managers will bail them out of a crisis – but that didn’t work too well during the last systemic crisis did it?”
For more information see:

NOAA Reports Highest Level of Carbon Dioxide in a Million Years
On May 6, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced the global average carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration was above 400 parts per million (ppm) during March, for the first time in a million years. Specific locations have surpassed 400 ppm concentrations before, such as Mauna Loa in 2013 and the Arctic in 2012, but this is the first time global averages have surpassed 400 ppm. Pieter Tans, lead scientist of NOAA’s Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, stated, “This marks the fact that humans burning fossil fuels have caused global carbon dioxide concentrations to rise more than 120 parts per million since pre-industrial times. . . half of that rise has occurred since 1980.”
For more information see:

NOAA Finds Arctic Ice Has Hit Lowest Point Since Satellite Records Began
On May 5, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) scientists reported that the Arctic ice cap had the smallest extent of winter ice since the late 1970s, when satellite monitoring of the polar region began. In addition, the “peak thickness” of the Arctic ice came in February, weeks ahead of its usual peak in mid-March. “We had less ice this winter in the Arctic than any other winter during the satellite era,” Jeff Key, a specialist with NOAA, confirmed during a media briefing. The scientists said this development is consistent with predictions that the Arctic will have ice-free summers by 2040. Key added that the ice trends in the Arctic have implications for weather in North America, Europe and Asia. “[This] is certainly going to change weather patterns . . . It’s going to be a different world out there I think in 20, 30, 30 years,” Key added.
For more information see:

World’s Largest Electronic Carbon Trading Exchange Launches New Platform in RGGI
On May 6, Carbon Trade Exchange (CTX), a multi-national company which has the largest electronic trading exchange for global carbon credits, announced the start of a new centralized exchange program to buy and sell allowances from the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cap-and-trade program in the Northeast. The new CTX RGGI Exchange is the first exchange which provides intra-day spot trading of RGGI credits, enabling same-day delivery of carbon credits. The CTX exchange will be electronically linked to Wells Fargo for managing the transfer of participant funds. Nathan Rockliff, president of CTXUSA, said, “We are incredibly excited to see how cap-and-trade programs are making an impact on North American carbon emissions, an issue that is increasingly important around the world.” CTX will likely launch an exchange in California’s cap-and-trade program next.
For more information see:

China’s Top Meteorologist Says Climate Change Threatens Major Infrastructure
On May 4, Zheng Guoguang, head of China’s Meteorological Administration, warned in the Chinese paper Study Times that some of China’s most vital infrastructure is vulnerable to climate change, and that the country is warming faster than the global average. Guoguang explained the “big connection” between climate change and floods, typhoons, heat waves, and droughts, which threaten critical infrastructure such as the Three Gorges Dam and a high altitude railway to Tibet. He stated in the newspaper, “Global warming affects the safety and stability of these big projects, as well as their operations and economic effectiveness, technological standards and engineering methods.” Guoguang added that confronting climate change can put China on a more sustainable economic growth trajectory, saying, “Climate change is a lever which can push our country’s economic transformation.”
For more information see:

Study Finds Clean Power Plan Would Save 3,500 Lives, Annually
On May 4, a study conducted by Syracuse and Harvard University and released in the journal Nature Climate Change found the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) proposed Clean Power Plan (CPP) would avoid an estimated average of 3,500 premature deaths and more than 1,000 heart attacks and hospitalizations related to air pollution, annually. The study used maps of the over 2,400 US fossil fuel power plants to create models of the impact of carbon policies. They found that out of three scenarios tested, the model with the greatest health benefit was in line with the EPA’s CPP. EPA spokeswoman Liz Purchia stated, “This new study . . . supports EPA’s findings that reducing carbon pollution will result in significant health benefits.” The EPA has estimated for every dollar spent on the CPP, the United States could see a seven dollar return in health benefits from lower health costs related to heart and lung disease.
For more information see:

NOTE: The 5,500 premature deaths that could be avoided annually by EPA’s proposed Clean Power Plan, which would reduce toxic emissions from electricity generating plants, is more than the number of lives lost by the terrorist attacks on 9/11/2001.  (See

Senate Legislation Introduced to Undermine Clean Power Plan
On May 13, Senator Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV) introduced a bipartisan bill with 25 Republican co-sponsors and one Democratic co-sponsor that would roll back the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) two draft regulations on greenhouse gases, one on new power plants and one on existing power plants. Sen. Capito’s bill, the Affordable Reliable Energy Now Act of 2015, or ARENA Act, sets new and stringent standards for the technologies EPA can rely upon as emissions reductions tools, limiting the agency’s ability to require cuts. The bill would also bar the EPA from writing new regulations that are “significantly similar” to the two draft rules the bill is blocking, unless the EPA follows these strict guidelines; allows governors to opt out if they so choose; extends dates for compliance; and prevents the EPA from regulating any source already regulated for mercury and air toxics emissions. “The Affordable Reliable Energy Now Act enables us to fight back against the assault on coal,” said Sen. Capito. Currently the White House Office of Management and Budget is reviewing the EPA’s regulation for new power plants, with both rules expected to become final this summer.
For more information see:

EPA Carbon Regulation on New Power Plants Entering Final Review Stage
On May 8, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) submitted the final version of a draft regulation to limit carbon emissions from new power plants to the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review. The proposed rule sets strict limits of 1,100 pounds of carbon dioxide per megawatt-hour produced for coal plants, and 1,000 pounds or 1,100 pounds per megawatt-hour for natural gas plants, contingent on facility size. “Together these actions will provide important public health benefits and address climate change, while ensuring reliable, affordable and clean power for American businesses and families,” EPA spokeswoman Liz Purchia said in a statement. OMB’s review is the last step before the rule is finalized and implemented, which is expected to happen mid-summer.
For more information see:

Canada Releases Its Plan to Cut Emissions for an International Deal on Climate
On May 15, Canada announced it will reduce greenhouse gas emissions 30 percent below 2005 levels by 2030, as part of its overall plan to prepare for climate negotiations taking place in Paris this December. Canada’s plan, referred to as an Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) in United Nations parlance, involves cutting emissions by introducing regulations in three sectors: methane emissions from oil and gas extraction; emissions from natural gas power plants; and emissions from chemical and nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing. But notably, the plan does not seek to regulate the country’s oil sands sector. “It’s a weak proposal and it stands in substantial contrast to proposals from other developed countries,” said David Waskow at the World Resources Institute. Canadian Environment Minister Leona Aglukkaq announced the plan in Winnipeg, stating that the target is “fair and ambitious,” and added that Canada will be depending upon strong actions taken by Ontario.
In related news on May 14, the province of Ontario announced a new greenhouse gas emissions reductions target, committing to cut pollution 37 percent below 1990 levels by 2030. This is a new mid-term target, in addition to a short-term goal of 15 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 and a long-term goal of 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.
For more information see:

India and China Release Joint Statement on Climate Change
On May 15, India and China, two of the world’s largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, released a joint statement urging developed countries to increase their 2020 emissions reductions targets and follow through on their commitment to provide $100 billion in annual support to developing countries. The two countries released this joint statement while Prime Minister Modi was visiting in China. The statement affirms that India and China will “further promote bilateral partnership on climate change,” but calls on wealthier countries to take leadership in “reducing greenhouse gas emissions and providing finance, technology and capacity building support to developing countries.” India and China both added that they would be submitting their plans (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, or INDCs) for greenhouse gas emissions reductions well before negotiations for an international deal on climate change open this December in Paris.
For more information see:

Pope Francis Says Environmental Sinners Will Have to Answer to God
On May 12, during a mass to open the general assembly of the Catholic charitable organization Caritas, Pope Francis said the “powerful of the Earth” will answer to God if they do not protect the environment to make sure the world’s population has enough food. At a press conference associated with the general assembly, Pope Francis’ closest advisor, Cardinal Rodr√≠guez Maradiaga, criticized climate-change skeptics, attributing capitalist motivations from “movements in the United States” for opposition to the upcoming encyclical on environmental issues expected early this summer. “The ideology surrounding environmental issues is too tied to a capitalism that doesn’t want to stop ruining the environment because they don’t want to give up their profits,” said Maradiaga.
For more information see:

Global Sea Level Rise Accelerating
On May 11, a study conducted by an international team of scientists and released in the journal Nature Climate Change found that global seawater levels rose at a faster rate than previously thought over the last two decades. By correcting for “drifts” in instruments collecting satellite and tidal gauge data, the new findings flip previous findings that sea-level rise had slowed in recent years, showing instead they have accelerated. The new study found that sea levels have risen 2.6 to 2.9 millimeters each year from 1993 to mid-2014. Christopher Watson, lead author of the study and geophysicist at University of Tasmania, said, “Accelerating sea level is a massive issue for the coastal zone — the once-in-a-lifetime inundation events will become far more frequent, and adaptation will need to occur,” adding, “Agencies need to fully consider the impact of accelerating sea level and plan accordingly.”
For more information see:

Group Wants Iowans to Ask Presidential Hopefuls About Climate Change
On May 11, a group of 188 Iowan scientists and academics released a statement urging Iowans to bring up climate change in discussions with presidential candidates stumping in Iowa. “Iowa Climate Statement 2015: Time for Action” is the fifth annual statement released by scientists and researchers at 39 Iowan universities and colleges, warning of the harmful effects of climate change on the environment and public health. “As presidential candidates come to our state to ask Iowans for their votes, Iowans should ask these candidates how they will address the negative impacts that Iowa farmers and communities have and will continue to experience,” said David Courard‐Hauri, an associate professor who directs the Environmental Science and Policy Program at Drake University.
For more information see:

Climate Change to Reduce Wheat Yields
On May 11, a study released in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that warmer temperatures associated with climate change could lead to a drop in wheat yield in the United States, and potentially elsewhere. “The net effect of warming on yields is negative,” said co-author Jesse Tack of the agricultural economics department of Mississippi State University, “even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures.” The study analyzed data from about 30 years of field trial outcomes in Kansas, a major wheat producing state. Findings show wheat yields will experience around a 15 percent decline if the Earth warms by 2 degrees Celsius. This decline jumps to 40 percent under a 4 degrees Celsius of warming scenario. The results also indicate that irrigation can mitigate the declining yields, a finding the scientists say has policy implications given the increasing scarcity of water resources.
For more information see:

World Bank Report Lays Out Steps to Decarbonize Countries’ Development
On May 11, the World Bank released a new report outlining three steps countries can take to zero out net emissions of greenhouse gases and stabilize climate change. The Bank says countries should undertake more long-term planning, keeping end goals in mind; create a broad policy package with a price on carbon, (emphasis added) with an aim to change investments and behavior; and work to smooth economic impacts for low-income communities which may arise when transitioning to a low-carbon economy. “As science has indicated, the global economy needs to be overhauled to reach zero net emissions before the end of the century, so we at the World Bank Group are increasing our focus on the policy options governments and businesses have now,” said Rachel Kyte, World Bank vice president and special envoy for climate change.
For more information see:

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Chad A. Tolman
New Castle County Congregations of Delaware Interfaith Power and Light

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