Tuesday, November 26, 2013



In August the National Center for Science Education, which defends the teaching of evolution and climate change science in American schools, published a book titled, Reality Check: How Science Deniers Threaten Our Future.  Chapter 5, Hot Enough for You? The Heated Debate over a Warming Planet, can be obtained from http://ncse.com/book-excerpt in pdf format by clicking on 

It’s well worth reading if you want to understand the power and the influence of those who seek to keep burning fossil fuels regardless of the cost to others.

On Oct. 17 Medill Reports (Northwestern University) posted an article by Elizabeth McCarthy titled, Climate change poses a public health crisis - and opportunity.  Dr. Johnathan Patz, the Director of the Global Health Institute of the University of Wisconsin in Madison, spoke at a recent panel discussion at the Environmental Law and Policy Center at Northwestern.  He said, “This is, I think, the largest health crisis we’ve ever faced, but I also think it could be the greatest opportunity of the last century if we actually address climate change.”  “Swapping cars for bikes, for example, could help pedal away climate change, save a cyclist hundreds of dollars in fuel and provide a way to stay active and healthy.”  At: 

On Nov. 1 President Obama established a Task Force on Climate Preparedness and Resilience to advise the Administration on how the Federal Government can respond to the needs of communities nationwide that are dealing with the impacts of climate change. The Task Force members include state, local and tribal leaders from across the country who will use their first-hand experiences in building climate preparedness and resilience in their communities to inform their recommendations to the Administration.”  Earlier he said, “we have a moral obligation to our children and future generations to leave them a planet that is not polluted or damaged.”  The task force includs Governors Markell of Delaware and O’Malley of Maryland - two of the states that will be seriously impacted by sea level rise and coastal storms.  At: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/11/01/fact-sheet-executive-order-climate-preparedness

On. Nov. 11 Alister Doyle and Michael Szabo of Reuters posted an article titled, UPDATE 1-Philippine delegate fasts at climate talks to urge action after storm.  The article said, “The Philippine delegate at U.N. climate talks began a fast on Monday in protest at a lack of action on global warming that he blamed for fuelling a super typhoon that has killed an estimated 10,000 people in his country.”  “In line with many developing nations, he urged far tougher action to cut greenhouse gas emissions, led by the rich, and more funds to help the poor cope with the impacts of climate change, including a new mechanism for loss and damage.
"We can take drastic action now to ensure that we prevent a future where super typhoons become a way of life," he said, his voice choking with emotion. He won a standing ovation.”  At: http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/11/11/climate-talks-idUSL5N0IW3G520131111
The Asbury Park Press posted an article by Wendy Koch on Nov. 12 titled, Climate poll: Most Americans say global warming real threat.  She wrote, The vast majority of Americans in each of 40-plus states surveyed say global warming is real, serious and man-made.”  “At least 75 percent of U.S. adults say global warming has been happening, but the Stanford University research found that 84 percent or more took that view in states recently hit by drought — Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas — or vulnerable to sea-level rise: Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York and Rhode Island.”  “Majorities consistently said that the U.S. should take action regardless of what other countries do,” said author and professor Jon Krosnik, Director of Stanford’s Political Psychology Research Group.  At: http://www.app.com/article/20131113/NJNEWS17/311130033/Climate-poll-Most-Americans-say-global-warming-real-threat

On Nov. 12 Mother Jones posted an article by Tim McDonnell titled, Is Your State Ready for Climate Disasters?  It reports a study by Columbia University’s Center for Climate Change Law of the 50 State Hazard Mitigation Plans required by FEMA, which lay out the risks and protocols for handling catastrophes.  The article has a map showing states with little or no discussion of climate change in their disaster plans, and those with minimal, accurate but limited, and thorough discussions of climate change.  The states with the highest rating are Alaska, Hawaii, California, Oregon, Colorado, Maryland, New York and the New England states.  Sixteen states had no or inaccurate discussions.  You can find the map and the criteria used for the ratings at: http://www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/2013/11/your-state-ready-climate-disasters?fb_action_ids=10151956466578672&fb_action_types=og.likes&fb_source=other_multiline&action_object_map=%7B%2210151956466578672%22%3A608158802580898%7D&action_type_map=

On Nov. 12 the Wall Street Journal published a 6-page Journal Report titled, ENERGY - The Power of Tomorrow.  It describes how our energy system has changed and what it may look like in the future.  The articles discuss hydropower, nuclear energy, biofuels, deep-water oil drilling, the search for better batteries, and solar power.  It has a lot of good information - including photos, figures, and clippings from past WSJ articles about energy; it is well worth reading.  At: http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/print/WSJ_-R001-20131112.pdf

On Nov. 13 the Huffington Post posted an article titled, Massive Iceberg Drifting Off Coast Of Antarctica May Be A Problem.  It reported that a massive iceberg with an area of 270 square miles broke off Antarctica’s Pine Island Glacier days ago and is now drifting out of Pine Island Bay - posing a possible hazard to shipping.  A massive crack across the glacier - Antarctica’s largest outlet glacier - was observed by NASA scientists in Nov. 2011,  but it has just broken free enough to drift off this year.  Since it was already floating - though not freely - its breaking off will not directly raise sea levels, but its loss may cause the acceleration of ice flow behind it - like taking the cork out of a bottle might release a genie from inside.  Replacing the highly reflective ice and snow surface of the terminus of the glacier by much more light-absorbing seawater will also increase the rate of absorbtion of solar radiation and heating of the water during the Antarctic summer.  At: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/11/13/iceberg-drifting-antarctica-270-square-miles_n_4268643.html

The American Chemical Society (ACS) has posted the ACS Climate Science Toolkit - The fundamental science to help you understand and
communicate climate science. 
It has six different sections: Energy Balance & Planetary Temperature
, Atmospheric Warming, Greenhouse Gases, Oceans, Ice, & Rocks, References & Resources, and Narratives & Presentations.

The Climate Science Rapid Response Team provides a service of linking climate scientists - chosen for their expertise based on their peer-reviewed publications - with politicians and the media to make sure that they are getting accurate, up-to-date information.  It has a web page with a wonderful list of resources available to the general public, including reports, web sites, books, videos and blogs.  It’s one of the best sources of information I have seen, written so that can it be understood by non-experts.  At: 

Note: Another good source of information is the Resources section of the Toolkit for Climate Action written by the Climate Change Task Force of the US League of Women Voters.  It includes topics as wide ranging as public policy, economics, ethics, national security, public opinion and museum exhibits.  Check it out.  (I confess that I am a member of the Task Force.)

Some years ago private insurance companies stopped writing flood insurance policies, and that role was taken over by the federal National Flood Insurance Program (NIFP) of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).  The problem is that the NIFP has not been collecting nearly enough money in premiums to cover the payouts for flood damage.  With the Biggert-Waters Reform Act of 2012, the NIFP was required to raise premiums enough to cover payouts.  You can learn more about federal flood insurance at Floodsmart.gov.
Scientists expect flooding risks to increase because of more powerful hurricanes, higher storm surges and heavier rainfall events.  Hurricane Sandy in 2012 and the serious flooding in Colorado this year are harbingers of what is to come.

The following items are from the Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI), Carol Werner, Executive Director. Past issues of its newsletter are posted on its website under "publications"
 at http://www.eesi.org/publications/Newsletters/CCNews/ccnews.htm
EESI’s newsletter is intended for all interested parties, particularly the policymaker community. 

EPA Begins Public Listening Sessions on Carbon Emissions Regulations

On October 23, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began a series of 11 listening sessions that it will hold in cities around the country to gather feedback on its planned regulation of carbon emissions for existing power plants. The EPA will be soliciting comments on its use of section 111(d) of the federal Clean Air Act to limit the emission of carbon dioxide from the over 1,000 power plants currently operating. Northeastern states which are already using a carbon trading program that targets power plant emissions (the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative) are expected to argue that they are already compliant with section 111(d). California may also request that the EPA recognize their cap-and-trade system as compliant with section 111(d). States that have not yet implemented their own emissions laws “will likely try to incorporate the lowest cost reduction measures . . . [to] ensure that the program’s requirement’s won’t compromise the availability of affordable and reliable electricity,” said Jennifer Macedonia, a senior adviser to the Bipartisan Policy Center. People who wish to make comments at a listening session will be awarded three minutes each.
For additional information see: EPA, Huffington Post

Iowa Scientists Release Statement on Climate Change Impacts on Farming

On October 18, the 2013 Iowa Climate Statement was released at the Iowa Climate Science Educators’ Forum. Over 150 scientists across the state signed onto the call for climate change action. The statement argues that Iowa’s agricultural economy will be especially hard hit by future climate change. Iowa is the nation’s largest corn and soybean producer, so any impacts will have far-reaching consequences. Extreme weather events such as the state’s prolonged droughts in 2011 and 2012 and the excessive spring rains in 2013 have made the role of climate change in Iowa clear, according to Gene Takle, director of the Climate Science Program at Iowa State University. Takle noted that “the last couple of years have underscored the fact that we are very vulnerable to weather conditions and weather extremes in Iowa.” The scientists commented on the need for Iowa to address climate change, writing, “Iowa’s soils and agriculture remain our most important economic resources, but these resources are threatened by climate change. It is time for all Iowans to work together to limit future climate change and make Iowa more resilient to extreme weather. Doing so will allow us to pass on to future generations our proud tradition of helping to feed the world.”
For additional information see: Popular Science, Radio Iowa, Statement

Study Finds Decline of Global Climate Change Investment

On October 22, the Climate Policy Institute (CPI), a San Francisco-based analysis firm, released a new study that found global investments on renewable energy and other climate mitigation measures plateaued to $359 billion in 2012, $5 billion less than the previous year. According to the report, slightly more than half of the investments ($182 billion) were spent in developing countries, and 76 percent ($275 billion) of all spending was domestic. The study also reveals the pattern of international investments, with private money inclined to flow between developed countries, while a majority of the money developed countries spent in developing countries came from the public sector. “Investment to combat and adapt to climate change is happening around the world, but it’s short of where it needed to be and efforts to grow it have not been successful enough,” commented CPI’s Executive Director Thomas Heller. According to International Energy Agency, an additional $5 trillion investment in clean energy is needed through 2020 to limit the temperature rise to within 2 degrees Celsius, the United Nations target. The report also underscores the critical role played by public sources and policies in leveraging private investment, saying the public sector’s $135 billion investment facilitated $224 billion in private spending.
For additional information see: Bloomberg, Reuters, Environmental Leader, Study

New Study Addresses Cost of Climate Change in East Asia

On October 17, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) released a report titled “Economics of Climate Change in East Asia,” warning of the risk of losing 5.3 percent of the region’s annual gross domestic product (GDP) by 2100 due to climate change. The report found that 12 million people in 23 East Asian cities and $864 billion in assets are at risk. Using climate models and data from China, Japan, Mongolia and South Korea, the report examined East Asia’s adaptation strategies, and how they can be combined with greenhouse gas reduction measures. The report identified infrastructure, coastal protection and agriculture as the three most vulnerable sectors to climate change impacts, and called for annual average climate-proofing investments of $22.9 billion, $4.2 billion and $9.5 billion, respectively. The aggregated annual cost accounts for less than 0.3 percent of the region’s annual projected GDP between 2010 and 2050. Ayumi Konishi, Director General of ADB’s East Asia Department noted that “the cost of inaction far outweighs the cost of climate change adaptation if countries act now.” Climate related natural disasters since 1970 have already cost the four nations $340 billion in economic loss.
For additional information see: Bloomberg, ADB, Report, Study

Study Finds Global Warming is Extending Dry Season in Amazon Rain Forest

On October 21, a new study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that the Amazon rain forest's dry season now lasts three weeks longer than it did 30 years ago. According to lead researcher Rong Fu, professor at The University of Texas, "The length of the dry season in the southern Amazon is the most important climate condition controlling the rain forest . . . If the dry season is too long, the rain forest will not survive." The researchers say the most likely explanation for the lengthening dry season is human-caused global warming. Effects of global warming, such as rising surface temperatures and shifts in the southern jet stream, block cold fronts that trigger rainfall in the region. According to the study, the Amazon’s annual fire season becomes longer as the dry season extends, and the threat of tree dieback increases. Since the Amazonian rain forest plays such a critical role in absorbing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, its decline would lead to large increases in greenhouse gases. This phenomenon was evidenced in 2005 when the Amazon experienced an intense drought that caused wildfires and killed thousands of acres of forest. This released one gigatonne of carbon into the atmosphere, equal to about one-tenth of annual human emissions, and reduced carbon storage by 1.6 gigatonnes.
For additional information see: Press Release, Study, Live Science

Scientists Release Guide to Relocating Species at Risk from Climate Change

On October 16, a team of environmental scientists from New Zealand and Australia released a study detailing a new quantitative framework that can be used to determine whether endangered species should be relocated to a new area in order to save them from extinction. The researchers explain that climate change is causing traditional habitats to alter at a pace that adaptation cannot match, threatening the survival of many species. The study’s original mathematical formulations can help scientists determine which species are good candidates for relocation, where and how they should be introduced, how relocation compares with other management options, and if relocation should occur at all. “With the climate changing more rapidly than species can move or adapt, our only chance of saving some species may be to move them to more climatically suitable areas,” explained study lead author Tracy Rout, an environmental scientist at the University of Melbourne. “But introducing species into areas outside their historical range is a controversial strategy, and we have to be sure it will work, both for the animals themselves, and for other species in their new habitat.” The research was funded by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions (CEED), and published in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS ONE.
For additional information see: Science Alert, Phys.org, Study

White House Issues Executive Order on Climate Preparation

On November 1, the White House released an Executive Order to enhance preparedness and resilience in the face of climate change in the United States. The Executive Order is divided into eight sections, and includes general policy issues, land and water management strategies, federal agency planning, and support of data and information processing tools. To ensure that these outlined strategies are implemented, the Executive Order creates an interagency Council on Climate Preparedness and Resilience, which will be chaired by the White House and have a membership of over 25 federal agencies. The order also called for the formation of a Task Force on Climate Preparedness and Resilience, whose members include governors, mayors, county officials and tribal leaders from across the country. The task force will assist and advise the interagency council.
For additional information see: Executive Order, Fact Sheet

Note: Governor Markell of Delaware is one of the governors on the Task Force.

European Ministers Call for a Climate-Friendly Economy

On October 28, a group of 13 European energy and climate ministers (called the Green Growth Group, or GGG) were joined by companies like Coca-Cola and Shell at a Brussels summit to urge the European Union (EU) to adopt strong measures to promote a low carbon economy. During the summit the GGG released a 40-page joint pamphlet titled “Going for Green Growth,” which calls for the EU to take three urgent actions. First, they request that the EU agree on an “EU 2030 Energy and Climate Policy Framework” to incentivize low carbon investment. Second, the group recommends structural reform of the EU’s $73 million Emission Trading System. Finally, the group seeks to ensure the EU is “in a position to put an ambitious emissions reduction offer on the table” at the Ban Ki-Moon-hosted World Leaders’ Climate Summit in autumn 2014. UNFCCC Secretary General Christiana Figueres welcomed the initiative, saying “Implementing clear policy frameworks that incentivize low-carbon, price carbon and lay the groundwork for emission reduction commitments in 2014 are the greatest contributions governments can make towards the new, universal 2015 climate agreement currently under design.”

Investors Ask Fossil Fuel Industry to Evaluate Impact of Climate Change on Business Practices

On October 24, over 70 pension funds, state and city treasurers released a statement revealing that they have requested an evaluation of how climate change will impact business practices at fossil fuel companies where they hold investments. The coalition has asked 45 companies to disclose to investors their "exposure to the risks associated with current and probable future policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050." New York State Comptroller Thomas DiNapoli explained that “Institutional investors must think over the long term, which means that we must take environmental risks into consideration when we make investments”.  The group of investors represents more than $3 trillion in assets, with only a portion of these investments in fossil fuels. According to Jack Ehnes, CEO of the California State Teachers Retirement System, “we don't expect fossil fuel companies to become clean-energy companies overnight.”  However, “they do need to examine in a rigorous way whether the current approach of investing in ever-more-expensive and carbon-intensive sources of energy is prudent use of our shareholder funds in a world already taking steps toward a low carbon future.”

New Report Shows Taxpayer Cost From Inaction on Climate Change

On October 29, Ceres published a new report “Inaction on Climate Change: The Cost to Taxpayers,” documenting the growing burden on taxpayers from public disaster relief and recovery programs, and warning that government losses and taxpayer costs will continue to rise unless the programs are reformed to encourage climate change mitigation. Ceres president Mindy Lubber noted “Taxpayer costs from climate change are getting bigger and bigger. Last year’s extreme weather events alone cost every American more than $300 apiece, or $100 billion altogether - most of it to pay for federal crop, flood, wildfire and disaster relief.” Extreme weather-prone states such as Florida and Texas face acute financial exposure, as their total loss exposure has risen 1,550 percent in the past 20 years, from $40 billion in 1990 to over $600 billion in 2010. The report offered specific recommendations for several federal programs, including the National Flood Insurance Program, the Federal Crop Insurance Program, disaster assistance and wildfire protection programs. Recommendations included incorporating climate change risks into insurance premium rates, allocating resources for disaster prevention, and incentives such as giving lower insurance premiums to farmers whose practices increase drought and extreme weather resiliency.
For additional information see: Ceres Press Release, Report, E&E Publishing

Arctic Temperatures Are Warmest in 44,000 Years

According to a new study released on October 23, Arctic temperatures are higher now than they have been in the last 44,000 years. Gifford Miller and his colleagues at the University of Colorado, Boulder used radiocarbon dating to find the age of recently exposed moss on rocks beneath melting ice caps on Canada's Baffin Island. The samples were found to be between 44,000 and 51,000 years old – although the researchers note that the samples could be up to 120,000 years old, since radiocarbon dating cannot measure reliably beyond 50,000 years. In addition to dating the moss samples, researchers analyzed gas bubbles trapped in ice cores. Taken together, the data shows that the Arctic has been heating up for about a century. The heating began to accelerate in the 1970’s, and even more significantly in the last 20 years. According to Miller, "All of Baffin Island is melting, and we expect all of the ice caps to eventually disappear, even if there is no additional warming.” Miller goes on to note, "This study really says the warming we are seeing is outside any kind of known natural variability, and it has to be due to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere."
For additional information see: Live Science, Scientific America, Statement, Study

DOE Invests $84 Million in Carbon Capture Projects

On November 7, the Department of Energy announced an $84 million investment in 18 innovative carbon capture projects around the country to help reduce carbon emissions from new and existing coal-fired power plants. The projects will research how to improve efficiency and drive down costs for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies in two types of power generation processes: post-combustion carbon capture for traditional, combustion-based coal plants and pre-combustion carbon capture for gasification-based power plants. “Coal and other fossil fuels still provide 80 percent of our energy, 70 percent of our electricity and will be a major part of our energy future for decades,” said Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz. “That’s why any serious effort to protect future generations from the worst effects of climate change must also include developing, demonstrating and deploying the technologies to use our abundant fossil fuel resources as cleanly as possible.” According to DOE, the Obama Administration has invested $6 billion in clean coal technologies to date. Aside from the $84 million DOE investment, additional costs for the CCS projects will be covered by the industry, universities and other research institutions.

Secretary Moniz and Climate Scientists Emphasize Role Nuclear Will Play in Combating Climate Change

At the meeting of the American Nuclear Society on November 11, Department of Energy Secretary Moniz expressed support for the role nuclear power plays in addressing climate change, as part of President Obama’s Climate Action Plan. Commenting on the ‘all of the above’ energy strategy, he stated “we are committed to . . . developing all of our domestic energy sources for a low-carbon world, be it coal, natural gas, nuclear, renewables, biofuels [or] efficiency.”  According to the Secretary, nuclear has been overlooked due to lower electricity demand and the boom in natural gas production in recent years, but commented that “the President continues to see nuclear energy as an important part of a diverse energy portfolio, and it’s part of his goal of doubling the national share of electricity from low-carbon energy sources by 2035.” In related news, several climate scientists penned a letter to policy makers urging further safe development of nuclear power, in order to avoid the worst effects of climate change. The letter, released November 3 by Dr. Ken Caldiera of the Carnegie Institution, Dr. Kerry Emanuel, of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. James Hanson of the Columbia University Earth Institute and Dr. Tom Wigley of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, warns that opposition to nuclear power will jeopardize our ability to avoid the worst affects of climate change. While many environmental groups counter that energy demands can be met by increased efficiency and renewable energy, the signers write that “renewables like wind and solar and biomass will certainly play roles in a future energy economy, but those energy sources cannot scale up fast enough to deliver cheap and reliable power at the scale the global economy requires . . . there is no credible path to climate stabilization that does not include a substantial role for nuclear power.”
For additional information see: The National Journal, CNN, The Associated Press

IEA Reports that Efforts to Mitigate Climate Change Are Falling Short

On November 12, the International Energy Agency (IEA) released its 2013 edition of World Energy Outlook (WEO-2013), analyzing the latest developments in global energy markets and the potential energy and climate trends in the upcoming decades. In the report, IEA projects that by 2035 global energy demand will rise by one-third, 90 percent of which will come from emerging economies. Taking all the emissions reductions measures pledged by governments into account, global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will still increase 20 percent by 2035, putting the world on a trajectory toward an average global temperature increase of 3.6 degrees Celsius, far above the international target of 2 degrees Celsius required to avoid catastrophic impacts of climate change. IEA expects the United States will become the world’s largest oil producer for most of the period from today to 2035, although in the mid-2020s the Middle East will begin to take back the dominant role in providing global oil supply growth. Average crude oil prices will climb steadily to $128 a barrel in 2012-dollars by 2035, supporting the development of unconventional oil resources to meet a growing gap between oil demand and oil production. WEO-2013 highlights the importance of taking advantage of energy efficiency, the “hidden fuel,” to adapt to higher energy prices and maintain competitiveness, stating that two-thirds of the economic potential for energy efficiency remains untapped.
For additional information see: The Hill, Politico, IEA

International Ozone Treaty Slowed Global Warming

On November 10, a new study published in the journal Nature Geoscience linked the rate of global warming to human activities, particularly the hidden influence of the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which banned the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), ozone-depleting substances that also have a warming impact. According to a commentary published alongside the study, the phase-down of CFCs during the 1990s has shaved 0.2 degrees Fahrenheit of global warming since then, a consequential amount in comparison to the 1.6 degree Fahrenheit warming observed from 1901 to 2012. Researchers performed a statistical analysis on temperature data collected from 1850 to 2010, as well as the trends in emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) between 1880 and 2010. They found the drops in emissions during the two World Wars and the Great Depression in the 1930’s led to the cooling period between 1940 and 1970; the reduction in emissions of CFCs and methane contributed to the lower rate of warming since the 1990s; and that the post-war economic boom emission rise marked the “onset of modern climate change.” The research was produced without the use of climate models. Francisco Estrada, lead author and ecological economist at Free University in Amsterdam said, “I hope it also helps with other climate negotiations . . . because this shows that international negotiations can actually achieve things, can actually be successful.”
For additional information see: Study, Nature, BBC, Climate Central, IGSD Press Release

Study Finds Cosmic Rays Contribute Minimally to Climate Change

On November 7, research published in the journal Environmental Research Letters further demonstrated that solar activity is not a significant cause of global warming. The study revealed that cosmic rays and solar radiation caused less than 10 percent of the total global warming observed in the 20th century. The idea that solar radiation is a major contributor to climate change is often cited in opposition of the accepted theory of human-induced global warming. Supporters of this idea hypothesize that cosmic rays from distant supernovas increase cloud cover (and therefore cooling) on Earth by charging the atmosphere, promoting cloud formation. During periods of increased solar radiation, the sun’s rays deflect incoming cosmic rays, leading to decreased cloud cover and increased temperatures on earth. Researchers at Lancaster University used mathematical calculations of the feedback mechanisms occurring in the earth’s atmosphere to calculate the role of carbon dioxide in absorbing heat from the atmosphere as compared to the role of solar activity. The conclusions are not surprising, according to Dr. Raymond Bradley, Director of the Climate System Research Center at the University of Massachusetts, who commented, “numerous studies have concluded that solar forcing cannot explain recent warming.”
For additional information see: NBC News, Study

Scientists Call for Development of Climate Adaptation Science

On November 8, an article published in the journal Science urged the development of climate adaptation science and preparedness research to help manage the risks of climate change. “Adapting to an evolving climate is going to be required in every sector of society, in every region of the globe. We need to get going, to provide integrated science if we are going to meet the challenge,” says Richard Moss, lead author of the article and senior scientist at the US Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The article grew out of a 2012 workshop at the Aspen Global Change Institute, where Moss emphasized “the need to consider how decisions get implemented and that climate is only one of many factors that will determine how people will adapt.” The article identified four major challenges that theoretical and practical sciences should focus on, including understanding information needs for adaptation decisions; identifying vulnerabilities; improving forecasts and climate models; and providing technology, management and policy options for adaptation. An international group of 27 climate and social scientists contributed to the work.
For additional information see: Science, PNNL News Release, NBC News, Climate News Network

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Chad A. Tolman

New Castle County Congregations of Delaware Interfaith Power and Light

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