Tuesday, April 16, 2013



I recently came across some interesting energy developments that I had not seen before .  One by Kirk Sorensen using thorium to generate nuclear power was described in a 10-minute video produced by TED and uploaded on April 22, 2011.  It can be viewed at:
Another promising development invented by Donald Sadoway at MIT is the liquid metal battery, which promises to store large amounts of electrical energy with high efficiency at low cost.  It might be just what is needed in some areas with large amounts of intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar PV.  It is described by Sadoway in a TED lecture posted in March 2012.  It’s at:

On Feb. 14 Katherine Bagley of InsideClimate News posted an important article titled, The Most Influential Climate Science Paper Today Remains Unknown to Most PeopleThe paper, "Greenhouse-Gas Emission Targets for Limiting Global Warming to 2C," was published in April 2009 in Nature, by researchers from Germany, the UK and Switzerland, who were led by Malte Meinshausen, a climatologist at Germany's Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact.  It did the math to find out how much more CO2 could be emitted to the atmosphere between 2000 and 2050 before it became likely that the global average temperature would increase more than the 2 degrees C many had agreed we should not go beyone.  “What they found was stark: To have a 50-50 chance of keeping temperature rise below 2 degrees, humans would have to stick to a carbon budget that allowed the release of no more than 1,437 gigatons of carbon dioxide from 2000 to 2050.”
“The paper found that by 2006, nations had already spent a quarter of that amount, or 234 gigatons. Meaning, the planet's carbon budget would be exhausted by 2024—11 years from now— if emissions levels stayed the same, or even earlier if they continue their upward trend.”  It was partly on the basis of this paper that Bill McKibben wrote his now famous Rolling Stones paper, Global Warming’s Terrible New Math, popularizing the science.  For Bagley see: http://insideclimatenews.org/news/20140213/climate-change-science-carbon-budget-nature-global-warming-2-degrees-bill-mckibben-fossil-fuels-keystone-xl-oil
On Feb. 27 the World Policy Institute issued a Release by Emily Adams titled, The Energy Game is Rigged: Fossil Fuel Subsidies Topped $620 Billion in 2011.  In it she pointed out that in 2011 the world’s countries spent more than $620 billion in subsidies for fossil fuels, but only $88 billion in renewable energy sources.  This was in spite of the fact that the Big Five oil companies - Royal Dutch Shell, ExxonMobil, BP, Chevron, and ConocoPhillips—together took in $137 billion in profits.  At:

On March 27 James Hansen, Pushker Kharecha and Makiko Sato posted a sort paper titled, Doubling Down on Our Faustian Bargain In it they showed that the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has not been increasing as much as expected based on the increasing amounts of fossil fuels burned.  They can account for the discrepancy by the fertilizing effects of the greater amounts of nitrogen compounds released by increased combustion.  They also point out that the temperature during the past decade is not increasing as rapidly as would be expected based on the increasing CO2 concentrations;  this can be accounted for by the increased emissions of aerosols formed by emissions from the many new coal burning power plants in Asia without modern scrubbers to remove acid gases.  The problem is that once people demand reduced aerosol emissions because of their bad health impacts, the CO2 will remain and the rate of waring will zoom up.  Faust made an agreement with the Devil to enjoy short-term benefits in the near-term and pay for them later.  Humanity is in that position now with fossil fuels.  At: http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/mailings/2013/20130329_FaustianBargain.pdf

In early April the Energy and Environmental Study Institute (EESI) posted a fact sheet on surveys of American public opinion on climate change taken between May, 2012 and March, 2013. Here is a summary of the results:
  • The American public’s concern about climate change, while still below 2007 levels, is on the rise nationwide.
  • This trend holds across party lines, with greater numbers of Democrats, Independents, and Republicans viewing this as a serious issue that will affect them in their lifetimes.
  • Additionally, more are convinced that global warming is caused by human activities rather than natural causes.
  • Higher percentages of minorities say climate change is happening and support the president taking steps to address the issue.
  • While a majority of Americans support the increased deployment of clean and renewable energy and regulation of power plant emissions, support remains weak for a carbon tax or cap‐and‐trade measures.

On April 8 the Los Angeles Times published an Op-Ed by former Governor Schwartzeneggar titled, California’s Silent Disaster.  In it he urged people to read the draft National Climate Assessment, and wrote the following: “This team of top climate scientists has concluded that our region of the country is hotter than it has ever been and that it will get hotter — because of humans. The last decade was the hottest the Southwestern U.S. has experienced — on average 2 degrees warmer than it had been historically. The scientists project a further increase over the next 50 years of 6 to 9 degrees if we do nothing.”
“This shift could spell disaster for California, long the nation's agricultural powerhouse. The state produces more than half of the fruits, nuts and vegetables grown in the U.S., with an output of $43.5 billion last year. Californians don't rely just on the food produced by the state's farms; they rely on the revenue and the jobs too. Agriculture employs more than 1.5 million people in California.”  At: http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe-0408-schwarzenegger-climate-report-20130408,0,6026654.story

On April 11 Bill McKibben posted an article in Rolling Stone titled, The Fossil Fuel Resistance.   In it he described the growing movement by people all over the world to oppose the powerful effort of fossil fuel interests to make a ton of money at the expense of  human welfare and the survival of many of the plant and animal species that have not yet been driven to extinction.   He writes, “After decades of scant organized response to climate change, a powerful movement is quickly emerging around the country and around the world, building on the work of scattered front-line organizers who've been fighting the fossil-fuel industry for decades. It has no great charismatic leader and no central organization; it battles on a thousand fronts. But taken together, it's now big enough to matter, and it's growing fast.”  He pointed out again that the proven reserves of traditional fossil fuels - coal, oil and natural gas - contain five times the amount of carbon needed, if burned, to drive the global average temperature above the 2 degrees C higher red line many have agreed we should not cross - not even counting the unconventional carbon sources now being developed like natural gas from shale fracking and bitumen from Canadian tar sands. He ends by writing, “We know what the future holds unless we resist. And so resist we will.”

The following items are from the Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI), Carol Werner, Executive Director. Past issues of its newsletter are posted on its website under "publications"
 at http://www.eesi.org/publications/Newsletters/CCNews/ccnews.htm
EESI’s newsletter is intended for all interested parties, particularly the policymaker community. 

U.S. Reduces GHG Emissions in 2012, But Coal Exports Spike

According to the Energy Information Administration, annual U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions fell 3.4 percent in 2012 to the lowest levels since 1995. The emissions reductions are largely due to the drop in electricity generated from coal, which comprised 37 percent of total U.S. electricity generation in 2012, a fall from 50 percent in 2005. However, while domestic coal use dropped, exports surged to record levels, increasing 17 percent from the previous year, to 126 million short tons.
For additional information see: National Geographic

United States, Australia Collaborating on Renewable Energy and Climate Change

According to Secretary of State John Kerry, the United States and Australia are working on a technology transfer plan to develop renewable energy and mitigate climate change. After meeting with Australian Foreign Minister Bob Carr on March 19, Kerry said, “We both share a hope and an expectation . . . [of] an opportunity for stakeholders in both of our countries to come together and explore new ideas for clean energy, renewable energy production, for modernization of our energy infrastructures, and efforts to combat climate change.” He continued, “We really hope that very soon we're going to have a date where we can announce our specific efforts to kick off this collaboration.”
In related news, Secretary Kerry spoke about the economic and national security threats of climate change at the National Geographic Society’s Ross Sea Conservation Reception on March 18. Kerry said, “Climate change is coming back in a sense as a serious international issue because people are experiencing it firsthand. The science is screaming at us, literally, demanding that people in positions of public responsibility at least exercise the so-called ‘precautionary principle’ to balance the equities and not knowing completely the outcomes at least understand what is happening and take steps to prevent potential disaster.”

For additional information see: Sydney Morning Herald, The Hill

Climate Impacts Threaten to Reverse Two Decades of Progress in Reducing Global Poverty

The gains in poverty reduction made in the past 20 years could be halted or reversed by climate change impacts, according to the United Nations Development Programme 2013 Human Development Report, The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. The report, released March 14, calculates that the share of the world's people living in extreme poverty fell from 43 percent in 1990 to 22 percent in 2008. Gains were made in 40 developing countries, including 500 million people in China alone. Even with a decrease in the percentage of people living in extreme poverty, much remains to be done, and the report states that “environmental inaction,” especially related to climate change could “halt, or even reverse” progress. The report finds that climate change is “already exacerbating chronic environmental threats,” and concludes, “The number of people in extreme poverty could increase to three billion by 2050 unless environmental disasters are averted by coordinated global action.” In response to the study, Durwood Zaelke, president of the Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development, said, “The best way to protect the significant gains in poverty reduction and human development threatened by climate impacts is to reduce black carbon soot, tropospheric ozone, methane, and factory-made HFCs. This fast-action strategy can cut the rate of global warming in half for the next several decades and protect the gains in poverty reduction that otherwise will be wiped out by accelerating climate impacts.”
For additional information see: New York Times, The Telegraph, Press Release, Report

Study Predicts Increased Storm Surge from Climate Change

A study published March 18 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concludes that a warming climate will likely contribute to more numerous and extreme hurricanes. While previous studies connecting hurricanes to rising temperatures have focused on ocean warming, this study focused on atmospheric warming. The researchers connected measures of previous storm surges to air temperature, and used the correlation between the two to model possible changes into the future. The study finds that for every rise in global temperatures of 1.0 degrees Celsius, the number of Katrina-sized storms would increase between 200 and 700 percent. According to lead author Aslak Grinsted, climate scientist with Denmark's Centre for Ice and Climate, “Whenever we're asked whether Katrina or Sandy was caused by global warming, we have to give the standard answer that no single event can be attributed to warming. Well now, the odds have changed sufficiently and it's misleading to people to trot out the standard answer. [. . . ] we have probably crossed the threshold where Katrina magnitude hurricane surges are more likely caused by global warming than not."
For additional information see: Reuters, Wired, U.S. News and World Report, Study

Reports Examine U.S. Potential to Cut Transportation Emissions 80 Percent by 2050

Two recent studies from the federal government investigate pathways to achieve major greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions in the transportation sector by 2050. The National Research Council’s report, Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels, finds that the United States may be able to achieve 80 percent GHG reductions from light duty vehicles by 2050, but that it will be “extremely challenging” and will require large gains in vehicle efficiency, expansion of alternative fuels, and strong government policies to overcome costs and other barriers. The Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) released the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a series of nine reports on opportunities to eliminate oil dependence and cut GHG emissions from the U.S. transport sector. The project found that United States has the technical potential to achieve 80 percent reductions in sector emissions by 2050, and provides specifics on how to achieve that potential. On March 15, EESI held a Congressional briefing highlighting the results of the TEF project (see briefing video and slides).
For additional information see: Daily Climate, EERE Study

President Obama’s Scientific Advisors Recommend Carbon Regulations

Recommendations of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) for climate mitigation and adaptation were released March 22, and include the implementation of carbon emissions standards for existing power plants. “Mitigation is needed to avoid a degree of climate change that would be unmanageable despite efforts to adapt. Adaptation is needed because the climate is already changing and some further change is inevitable regardless of what is done to reduce its pace and magnitude,” PCAST stated in a letter to President Obama. The recommendations included curtailing the leakage of methane from gas production sites, reducing regulatory obstacles for the implementation of carbon capture and storage technologies, and steps for “leveling the playing field” for renewable energy through the tax code. The report also recommends exploring the possibility of a new North American climate agreement and implementing a quadrennial energy review. PCAST members include John Holdren, President Obama’s Science Advisor, and University of Michigan Professor and EESI board member, Dr. Rosina Bierbaum.
For additional information see: The Hill, Sustainable Business, Press Release, Letter

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Releases Climate Adaptation Guide

On March 26, the Obama administration released the first national Climate Adaptation Strategy for natural resources and the people that depend upon them. The Congressionally-requested report, co-authored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, outlines seven key steps for how to reduce the impact of climate change on wildlife over the next five years. These measures include conserving habitat to protect animal and plant species, reducing non-climate stressors and enhancing capacity for effective management. Deputy Secretary of the Interior David J. Hayes said, “Rising sea levels, warmer temperatures, loss of sea ice and changing precipitation patterns – trends scientists have connected to climate change – are already affecting the species that we care about, the services we value, and the places we call home.” Economic impacts are also a concern, as wildlife recreation adds $120 billion to the economy each year, and the U.S. seafood industry is worth $116 billion each year. Input for the report included nearly 55,000 public comments from individuals, non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and tribes.
For additional information see: USA Today, Press Release, Study

City of Palo Alto to Use Only Carbon-Neutral Power

The City of Palo Alto voted March 3 to switch to entirely carbon-neutral sources of electricity, effective immediately. Because in Palo Alto electricity is provided by a municipally-owned utility, the city is able to focus on procuring electricity from solar, wind, and landfill gas projects and increasing energy efficiency. For the average household, the plan is projected to cost just $3 more annually. The city council’s decision is inspiring other cities to consider the model of municipally-owned utilities in order to move towards more sustainable forms of energy (see March 25 issue). "As a City, we've had cheaper, greener power for our citizens for decades,” said City Manager James Keene, “and being able to make this recent move to 100% carbon-free electricity is just another example of how owning our own utilities pays off."
In related news, on March 26 the city of Los Angeles announced that it will be coal-free by 2025, by converting a coal-fired power plant in Utah to natural gas and selling the city’s interest in an Arizona coal plant. Together, the coal-fired plants currently provide 40 percent of the city’s electricity. The city will also expand use of renewable energy.

For additional information see: Sustainable Business, Los Angeles Times

IMF Recommends Cutting Fuel Subsidies

A report released March 27 by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) titled “Energy Subsidy Reforms: Lessons and Implications,” finds that, including the negative externalities from fuel consumption, international energy subsidies totaled $1.9 trillion in 2011. The IMF calls for the repeal of energy subsidies to avoid “the damaging effects of increased energy consumption on global warming.” The report concludes that removing the subsidies would directly reduce global carbon dioxide emissions 12 percent and could lead to other benefits by reducing energy demand. "It's painful to see nearly two trillion in public money going to subsidize something that is causing so much damage to the world's climate and our economies," said Durwood Zaelke, president of the Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development.
For additional information see: New York Times, Washington Post, Report

Americans in Favor of Preparing for Climate Change

On March 28, Stanford University’s Woods Institute for the Environment released the results of a survey on adaptation and rising sea levels, which found that 73 percent of Americans believe that climate change-associated sea level rise is a threat to the United States now and in the future, and that 82 percent of Americans believe the United States needs to begin preparing for rising sea levels. When asked what coastal communities should do, 62 percent said that need to be stronger building codes, and 52 percent said that new construction along coastlines should be prevented from going forward. More than 80 percent of Americans believe that local property and business owners should pay for adaptation, while 38 percent said the government should pay. According to the survey director Dr. Jon Krosnick, senior fellow at the Woods Institute, "People want preventive action, and few people believe these preparations will harm the economy or eliminate jobs. But people want coastal homeowners and businesses that locate in high-risk areas to pay for these measures."
In related news, EESI held a briefing later in the day on March 28, at which Dr. Krosnik spoke about public opinion on climate change and the government’s role in addressing climate change (more information available here). He noted that climate change opinion polls have held mostly steady over the past 30 years with large majorities expressing concern about climate change, and that his most recent survey found that 78 percent of Americans are concerned. He noted that the majority of Americans believe in climate change, and that this holds true for Republicans, Democrats, and Independents, as well as in each individual state.

For additional information see: Los Angeles Times, USA Today, AP

Study: Phrasing of Climate Polling Survey Questions Influences the Result

A new meta-analysis of over 150 polls about climate change found that approximately 75 percent of Americans believe that climate change is occurring. Researchers from The Strategy Team, a public opinion consulting firm, analyzed questionnaires reaching as far back as 1986, and found that most variation between polls comes not from variation in concern, but from variation in wording of the questions. When question wording is taken into account, “Belief that global warming is happening has been mostly stable and increasing for the last thirty years,” stated study leader Dr. Orie Kristel, principal at The Strategy Team.
For additional information see: USA Today

Climate Scientist James Hansen Retires from NASA

On April 3, leading NASA climate scientist James Hansen retired from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies in Manhattan. After nearly half a century at NASA, Dr. Hansen is going on to devote more of his time to climate change activism. Through his publications and scientific research, the 72-year old has become known for proffering some of the clearest evidence for anthropogenic climate change. He noted that he feels a moral obligation to continue explaining the importance of climate change, stating, “If we burn even a substantial fraction of the fossil fuels, we guarantee there’s going to be unstoppable changes. [. . .] We’re going to leave a situation for young people and future generations that they may have no way to deal with.” Hansen hopes to file lawsuits against federal and state governments for failing to limit greenhouse gas emissions. He said, “As a government employee, you can’t testify against the government.” On April 4, Hansen penned an opinion piece against the Keystone XL Pipeline in the Los Angeles Times.
For additional information see: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times Op-ed

The World Bank and IMF both Focusing Efforts against Climate Change

World Bank President Jim Yong Kim has promised to expand the lender’s role in mitigating shocks from climate change as part of a plan to eradicate poverty by 2030. In his speech at Georgetown University on April 2, Kim criticized the lack of action against climate change, noting that it poses a global economic risk, stating, “Climate change is not just an environmental challenge. It is a fundamental threat to economic development and the fight against poverty.” In his speech, Kim also outlined numerous solutions the World Bank Group is exploring to help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming impacts. “We are exploring a number of bold ideas,” he said, “including new mechanisms to support and connect carbon markets; politically feasible plans to eliminate fossil fuel subsidies; increased investments in climate-smart agriculture; and innovative partnerships to build clean cities.”
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is also placing greater emphasis on the issue of climate change. On April 2, the IMF and World Resources Institute hosted former World Bank Chief Economist Lord Nicholas Stern to discuss the seriousness of climate impacts. Lord Stern noted that since the release of his influential report on the same topic in 2006, he has seen global warming accelerate much more rapidly than predicted. He was optimistic, however, that solutions are still possible. "My own view is that 2013 is the best possible year to try to work and redouble our efforts to create the political will that hitherto has been much too weak."

For additional information see: Washington Post, Bloomberg, Agence France-Presse

Deep Ocean a Key Sink to Atmospheric Warming

While researchers have long known that 90 percent of anthropogenic warming has gone directly into the oceans, in the past several years, upper-ocean and atmospheric warming has not continued at expected levels. According to an article published March 21 in Geophysical Research Letters, the reason is in part because 30 percent of ocean warming since 1998 has occurred at 700 meters or below. The researchers used data from 1958 to 2009 to reconstruct ocean conditions, and found that the deep-ocean temperature has been steadily increasing, with short punctuations of cooling during volcanic eruptions and El Niño events. The researchers suggest that the lack of surface warming has been caused by variations in atmospheric winds that circulate heat deeper than what has been seen in the past.
For additional information see: Ars Technica, Live Science, Study

Climate-Related Provisions Included in President Obama’s Budget

President Barack Obama released the Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 budget request April 10. The budget provides some indication about the president’s climate priorities for his second term. The budget states, “The president recognizes that climate change poses an economic, security and environmental threat that demands a decisive response.” It continues, “Even as we work to reduce the severity of climate change by cutting carbon pollution, we must also improve our ability to manage the climate impacts that are already being felt at home and around the world. Preparing for increasingly extreme weather and other unavoidable consequences of climate change will save lives and help to secure long-term American prosperity.”
The 2014 budget proposal includes $2.65 billion for U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) – a federal program that coordinates national climate change research across 13 federal agencies – an increase of $151 million over FY 2012 actual levels. The Department of Transportation budget includes $200 million for state and local transportation investments that incorporate climate resiliency. The Environmental Protection Agency budget requests $176.5 million for climate change programs, an increase of 4.8 percent from FY 2012 levels. The State Department budget includes $909 million “to promote efforts to combat the drivers of climate change by supporting clean energy, reducing deforestation and enhancing low-emission, climate-resilient development.” The budget also includes $1.8 billion for NASA to “revamp the Landsat program, develop climate sensors for the Joint Polar Satellite System and conduct numerous other satellite and research efforts.” The Department of Defense (DOD) budget includes more than $3 billion for operational and facility energy conservation investments. In addition, the budget outlines a new Presidential goal of doubling energy productivity by 2030 from 2010 levels. To support the goal, the FY 2014 request includes a one-time, $200 million Race to the Top competitive grant program that challenges states to cut energy waste, support energy efficiency and modernize their grids. The proposal also eliminates $4 billion annually in fossil fuel tax subsidies.

While President Obama’s words are encouraging and he is asking for more money for climate research and improved energy efficiency while reducing fossil fuel subsidies, his proposals are quite inadequate for the task at hand.  Sir Nicholas Stern, a British economist, has estimated that the world should be spending 2% of its GDP each year to deal with climate change.  Two percent of  U.S. GDP of about $16 trillion would be about $320 billion a year - about 50 times what the president is calling for.  Stern suggested that delaying a response might increase the annual cost to the world economy to as much as 20% per year.

UN Secretary General Invites U.S. President to Take an Active Role in 2014 Climate Discussions

United Nations (UN) Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon met with President Barack Obama in Washington on April 10 to discuss a wide range of topics, including climate change. “The United Nations and United States share common goals – peace and security, human rights and development,” said Ban. “In that regard, I really appreciate such strong leadership and cooperation and support of the U.S. Government and President Obama.” The secretary general also told the president that he would continue to work with UN member states to ensure that a legally binding climate treaty is reached by the end of 2015. He said, “For that [to be] possible, to facilitate this process, I intend to convene a leaders’ meeting sometime next year. I have invited President Obama, I invited him to play an important leadership role for humanity.”
For additional information see: UN Press Release, White House Transcript

U.S. Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Declined in 2012

According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions declined to 5.3 billion tonnes in 2012, the lowest level since 1994. The largest contributing factor to the lower CO2 emissions was decreased use of coal, which has increasingly been replaced by natural gas. Additional contributing factors include the warmer than usual winter and continued decrease in demand for transportation fuels.
For additional information see: EIA

New Science Education Guidelines Include Climate Change

On April 9, the first new science curriculum guidelines since 1996 were released. The Next Generation Science Standards – which include climate change as a core concept for the first time – were developed by 26 states in conjunction with national scientific and education organizations. The new standards touch on the relationship between climate change and human activity, which would be taught starting in middle school and continuing through high school. At the moment, two-thirds of U.S. students say they are not learning much about climate change. “I hesitated a little bit talking about something controversial,” says Judith Luber-Narod, a high school science teacher at Abby Kelley Foster Charter Public School in Worcester, Massachusetts. “But then I thought, how can you teach the environment without talking about it?” The new curriculum is not mandatory, and could be adopted by up to 40 states.

Reducing Short-Lived Climate Pollutants Significantly Cuts Sea Level Rise

A multi-year research effort led by Dr. V. Ramanathan, director of the Center for Atmospheric Sciences at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, concludes that sea-level rise can be cut significantly by reducing local air pollution from black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone, and hydrofluorocarbons. The study, published 14 April in Nature Climate Change, calculated that the annual rate of sea-level rise could be reduced up to 24 percent by 2100 by controlling these four short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), and that cumulative sea level rise could be reduced 22 percent. “It is still not too late to avoid disastrous climate changes,” stated Dr. Ramanathan. “If we stabilize CO2 concentrations below 450 [parts per million] by 2100 and simultaneously reduce SLCPs, we can limit the end-of-century warming by 50 percent and keep below the two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) safety guardrail, from the projected four degrees Celsius (7.2 degrees Fahrenheit).” Durwood Zaelke, president of the Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development, said, “This ground-breaking study provides the blueprint for climate justice this century. Cutting these air pollutants and chemical coolants can cut warming in half for many decades, and is essential for protecting vulnerable people and places this century.”

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Chad A. Tolman
New Castle County Congregations of Delaware Interfaith Power and Light

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